Glencore International AG
Founded in 1974 by Marc Rich as Marc Rich & Co.
Current chief executive officer is Ivan Glasenberg.
Headquartered in Baar, Switzerland, and employs about 2,000 people worldwide, directly and indirectly.
It has three main business groups -- metals and minerals, energy products and agricultural products.
Glencore directly or through its subsidiaries holds significant stakes in publicly listed companies such as Xstrata Plc.
Industry sources said in November Glencore was considering a first-half listing, and was likely to work with Morgan Stanley, Citigroup and Credit Suisse.
France's Louis Dreyfus Group is a worldwide trader, processor and merchandiser of various agricultural and energy commodities.
Also trades ocean freight, metals and financial instruments and is involved in real estate and electricity distribution.
Launched in 1851 in Alsace, in the eastern part of France.
Commodity trading subsidiary generates $35 billion in revenue.
In September, banking sources and French daily Le Figaro said Louis Dreyfus was considering an IPO.
Gunvor International B.V
Gunvor International is registered in Amsterdam with a major trading operation in Geneva.
Founded in 1997 by Swedish oil trader Torbjorn Torknqvist and Russian businessman Gennady Timchenko.
Gunvor handles about a third of Russian crude exports.
Specialises in the trade, transport and storage of oil and petroleum products and it has recently moved into power, gas and coal.
Industry sources said in September it had postponed the launch of the Ust Luga terminal to February. The Baltic port will become Russia's largest oil product outlet when launched.
Mercuria Energy Group Ltd
Swiss-owned Mercuria Energy Group ranks itself as one of the world's five largest independent energy traders with turnover in 2008 of about $46 billion.
Group president and chief executive officer is Marco Dunand. He told Reuters in May the company may consider an initial public offering of shares in 2-3 years.
Its product range spans crude oil, fuel oil, middle distillates, naphtha, gasoline.
Also trades power, natural gas, coal, biodiesel, vegetable oils, and carbon emissions. It said earlier this year it would start liquefied natural gas (LNG) trading business.
Has more than 30 million barrels of total oil storage capacity around the world and is active in shipping markets. Owns the Eurodek Terminal oil storage facility in Tallinn, Estonia and the Mercuria Terminals Flushing in Vlissingen, Netherlands.
Has upstream investments, including Orchard Petroleum in California.
Building a biofuels plant at the Oiltanking terminal in the Port of Amsterdam.
Founded by Frenchmen Claude Dauphin, Eric de Turkheim and Englishman Graham Sharp in 1993.
Trades commodities such as crude oil, refined oil products, non-ferrous, concentrates and refined metals and provides the ships and facilities to store and transport them.
2009 sales of $47 billion. It has about 1,900 staff.
A British media report in May said the company was planning a 1 billion pounds ($1.59 billion) flotation of its industrial assets, though it would look to retain a minority stake in the listed group.
Founded in 1966, and had revenue of around $143 billion in 2009. It trades more than 5 million barrels per day of crude oil and refined products. Ian Taylor is the president and the CEO of the company.
Besides crude oil, Vitol's businesses include gasoline and naphtha, fuel oil, gas oil and jet, natural gas, coal, power, carbon emissions, shipping, derivatives, ethanol, non-ferrous metals and sugar.
Vitol has 2,700 employees in its trading, upstream and storage businesses, and Arawak, an upstream group it owns.
Vitol Tank Terminals International owns more than 5 million cubic metres of storage throughout the world and plans to increase this to more than 8 million cubic metres by 2012.
Vitol sold 50 percent of VTTI to Malaysia's MISC Bhd, an international shipping line, for $735 million. The deal closed in September.
Vitol has exploration and production assets which include operations in the Philippines, Congo, Ghana, Nigeria, Russia, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan.
In refining, Vitol owns and runs the 100,000 bpd Fujairah refinery in the United Arab Emirates. It bought the Batumin plant in Antwerp, Belgium from Petroplus last year.
Noble is a Singapore-listed trading group.Noble Group Limited (SGX: N21) is a global commodities trading/supply chain manager of agricultural, industrial and energy products. Noble manages a diversified portfolio of essential raw materials, integrating the sourcing, marketing, processing, financing and transportation. With 2008 revenues of US$36.1 billion, Noble continues its transition to owning and managing more strategic assets, sourcing from low cost producers such as Brazil, Australia and Indonesia and supplying to high growth demand markets including China, India and the Middle East. Noble owns coal and iron ore mines, grain crushing facilities, sugar and ethanol plants, vessels, ports and other infrastructure.
In 2008, Noble debuted on the Fortune Global 500 (#349), was included in the new 30 security Straits Times Index, gained a top ten placing in the ACCA/CFO Asia "Regional Corporate Transparency Index (CTI)" and received a BBB- rating (investment grade) from Fitch. Noble was placed on the Forbes Global 2000 and Forbes Fab 50 while being included in the S&P Global Challengers and The Asset's Best 60 Corporate Governance Award.
Mabanaft is the trading arm of Marquard & Bahls AG, a leading independent petroleum company, privately owned.Mabanaft trades in all important regions worldwide, with a strict focus on physical oil trading.
Their business lines encompass international trading, the import and wholesaling of petroleum products, as well as service stations, heating-oil retailing, lubricants, and bunker services.
North Sea Group
North Sea Group is privately held and active in the Western European downstream market. It was created in 2009 through the merger of Van der Sluijs Group and FNR+ Holding. North Sea Group is a key player on the Western European downstream oil market. The company combines storage and distribution with the international trading and sale of mineral oils and biofuels.
The Group's commercial divisions trade in all mainstream mineral oil products such as heavy fuel oil, automotive diesel, heating oil, marine diesel, kerosene and mogas. Over the past few years biofuels have become a key new product group for North Sea Group.
North Sea Group was founded in January 2009 to coordinate the merger between all divisions. Today the Group employs over 300 people.